Few things that are considered as the foundation of a Blog are:
Keyword Embedding ( A blog must include your targeted keyword as per the theme of your content)
Collect some attractive image related to post & embed it in blog.
Collect some video or make yourself embed it in blog. (Optional )
Collect some notes related to your post from top authority websites like Wikipedia, hubpages, seomoz etc. You can add these websites within your post as source of information.
Make sure to include the targeted keyword in your blog post title.
Title should be between 3 to 10 words.
Blog Body Writing Guidelines:
Write original content as possible, because Google is now much smarter and prefer only unique content, and even if you are taking something from others website then there is a need to mention that you have taken reference form that website and mention the link also.
Check your content with content checking tool for duplicity. (copyscape etc.)
Write your post for people, not search engine.(Dont use unnecessary keyword stuff)
Embed around 1% keywords with respect to the total number of word count of the complete blog post.
The length of Blog posts should be at least 400 words to be in favor of search engines.
Keyword usage on your header tags matters a lot. Use H2-H4 Tag. But before using h2 tag you need to use at least one H1 tag.
Use images and video to explain the post with it title, description, and alt tag.
Provide advice and some external link for research done on your topic. For this give reference of top authority website.
Correct all grammar and spelling errors.
Select the best place to use your keyword according to blog design.
Create clear call to action with your post.
Include statistics data related to your post. Example the education ratio of men and women is 4:3 of total population.
Give social profile link within your content for better user engagement, Include your twitter, facebook, Google+ profile if existing.
Important Things To Avoid While Blogging:
Use of Duplicate content in your blog.
Use of more than one H1 tags.
Use of excessive number of keywords.
Use of excessive anchor text in blog.
Use of excessive outbound links which are re-directing to other sites.
Use of too short content in your blog.