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  • SQL Tutorial -> Sql Wildcards

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    <-- Chapter 22: SQL Select Top

    Chapter 23

    SQL Wildcards


    SQL Wildcard characters are used to substitute any characters in a string. As we have discussed LIKE operator in chapter 10. SQL supports two wildcard operators with LIKE operator i.e (%) and (_) underscore sign. The wildcards used in SQL are : -


    • % : Zero or more characters can be substitute.
    • _ : One character can be substitute.
    • [charlist] : It sets and ranges of characters which are specified within the brackets to match in the table records.
    • [!charlist] or [^charlist] : It matches only the characters which are not specified within the brackets to match in the table records.

    Lets see an examples from the below table "employees" :-


    employee_id name code designation salary
    101 ABC E-101 Engineer 12000
    102 DEF E-102 Doctor 8000
    103 GHI E-103 Software Developer 8000
    104 JKL E-104 CEO 12000
    105 MNO E-105 Software Developer 100000

    % Wildcard SQL syntax :-


    SELECT *
    FROM `employees`
    WHERE `designation` LIKE 'sof%'
    

    Now run the above SQL query, we will see the output below :-


    employee_id name code designation salary
    103 GHI E-103 Software Developer 8000
    105 MNO E-105 Software Developer 100000

    Now we can see here, those records are displayed which column designation values matched with the starting letters 'sof'.


    _ Wildcard SQL syntax :-


    SELECT * FROM `employees`
    WHERE designation LIKE '_octor';
    

    Now run the above SQL query, we will see the output below :-


    employee_id name code designation salary
    102 DEF E-102 Doctor 8000

    Now we can see here, only those Records are displayed which column designation value starting with any character, followed by "octor".


    [charlist] Wildcard SQL syntax :-


    SELECT * FROM `employees`
    WHERE `designation` LIKE '[edc]%';
    

    Now run the above SQL query, we will see the output below :-


    employee_id name code designation salary
    101 ABC E-101 Engineer 12000
    102 DEF E-102 Doctor 8000
    104 JKL E-104 CEO 12000

    Now we can see here, only those Records are displayed which column designation value starting with "e", "d", or "c":


    [!charlist] Wildcard SQL syntax :-


    SELECT * FROM `employees`
    WHERE `designation` LIKE '[!edc]%';
    

    Now run the above SQL query, we will see the output below :-


    employee_id name code designation salary
    103 GHI E-103 Software Developer 8000
    105 MNO E-105 Software Developer 100000

    Now we can see here, only those Records are displayed which column designation value does not starts with "e", "d", or "c":


    Chapter 24: SQL Aliases -->

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