Welcome to Findnerd. Today we are going to discuss 32 bit and 64 bit processor working. We can easily heard its terms in daily life and few of you want to know these new terms so lets go for a discussion. 32 bits processor contains 32 bits general purpose register file in size and other hand 64 bit contains general purpose register in size. GPR holds data to process it by processor. CPU fetchs data from register for memory calculation. 32 bits processor can mapped memory space limited to 4GB and for 64 bit processor limit is 16Exabyte.
Through intel's physical address extension and ARM's virtualization extension for instance can allow the processor to use the memory greater than 32 bits. In 32 bit ALU is limited to use 32 bits register. Now a days 64 bits systems are widly used. You can see new softwares are available in 64 bits and can not run on 64 bits system.
There are serveral groups of processor registers such as integer, floating point, single instruction, multiple data, control and others for address arithmetic. Most of the processors contains only integer or address register to address data in memory. In the end 32 bit or 64 bit determine the amount of binary process by the processor in one CPU cycle. CPU cycle is small data structure for the arithematic operation that cpu loads in memory.